Sir Brian Urquhart was a personal assistant to the first Secretary-General (Trygve Lie) and subsequently served in various capacities under Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Ralph Bunche. Over this period, Sir Brian was centrally involved in the establishment and direction of Peacekeeping forces, peaceful uses of atomic energy, the Congo crisis in the early 1960s, and peacekeeping in Cyprus, Kashmir, and the Middle East. In the period after 1956, Sir Brian was one of the principal political advisors to the Secretary-General working on Lebanon, Israel and Palestine, and Namibia, among others. He retired from the United Nations Secretariat in 1986. From 1986 to 1996 he was a scholar-in-residence in the International Affairs program of The Ford Foundation. He is the author of several books and biographies including Hammarskjold (1974); A Life in Peace and War (1987);An American Life, Decolonization and World Peace (1989); An African Soldier's Reflections (1989) with Emmanuel Alexander Erskine; A World in Need of Leadership; Tomorrow's United Nations (1990); Ralph Bunche, An American Odyssey (1993); Renewing the United Nations System (1994) co-authored with Erskine Childers; Military-Civilian Interactions (1999) co-authored with Thomas Weiss and Mission with UNIFIL.